b'2021 CARES Annual Report 13 13 Case Definition CARES captures data on all non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrests where resuscitation is attempted by a 911 Responder (CPR and/or defibrillation). This also includes patients that receive an AED shock by a bystander prior to the arrival of 911 Responders. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described below (Tables 1 and 2). Table 1. CARES inclusion criteria (all of the following) Patients of all ages who experience a non-traumatic, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Patients who are pulseless on arrival of 911 Responder; OR Patients who become pulseless in the presence of 911 Responder; OR Patients who have a pulse on arrival of EMS, where a successful attempt at defibrillation was undertaken by a bystander prior to arrival of 911 Responder.Table 2. CARES exclusion criteria (any of the following) Unworked/untreated cardiac arrests, to include codes that are terminated immediately upon arrival of EMS because the patient is not a viable candidate for resuscitation due to: oInjuries incompatible with life.oSigns of decomposition. oThe presence of rigor mortis or lividity.oPresence of a valid DNR. Stillborn neonates/perinatal newborns, born without signs of life.Private EMS transport that did not involve 911 dispatch. Cardiac arrest of clear and obvious traumatic etiology. Bystander suspected cardiac arrest, where ROSC was achieved without the need for defibrillation or 911 Responder CPR.Data Collection & Elementsrhythm, return of spontaneous circulation [ROSC], field hypothermia, and pre-hospital survival status).Data collection within CARES is based on the Utstein- EMS providers are also able to enter a number of style definitionsa standardized template of uniformoptional elements, which further detail arrest reporting guidelines for clinical variables and patientinterventions (i.e. usage of mechanical CPR device, ITD, outcomes that was developed by international resuscitation experts2,3.12 Lead, automated CPR feedback device, and advanced airway; administration of drugs; and diagnosis of The CARES web-based software (https://mycares.net),STEMI). The CARES form also includes a number of links three sources to describe each OHCA event: 1) 911optional time elements, including estimated time of call center data, 2) EMS data, and 3) hospital data. Dataarrest, initial CPR, defibrillatory shock, sustained ROSC, can be submitted in two ways: using a data-entry formand termination of resuscitative efforts.Supplemental on the CARES website, or via daily upload from andata elements collected from 911 call centers include agencys electronic patient-care record (ePCR) system.the time that the call was received, the time of dispatch Access to the CARES website is restricted to authorizedfor both first responder and EMS providers, and arrival users, who are prohibited from viewing data fromtime at the scene. another agency or hospital.Data elements collected from receiving hospitals include Data elements collected from EMS providers includeemergency department outcome, provision of demographics (i.e. name, age, date of birth, incidenttherapeutic hypothermia/TTM, hospital outcome, address, gender, and race/ethnicity), arrestdischarge location, and neurological outcome at circumstances (i.e. location type of arrest, witnessdischarge (using the Cerebral Performance Categories status, and presumed etiology), and resuscitation- [CPC] Scale). Receiving facilities may also complete specific data (i.e. information regarding CPR initiationoptional elements outlining hospital procedures, and/or AED application, defibrillation, initial arrest2Cummins RO, Chamberlain DA, Abramson NS, et al. Recommended guidelines3Perkins GD, Jacobs IG, Nadkarni VM, et al. Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary for uniform reporting of data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: The UtsteinResuscitation Outcome Reports: Update of the Utstein Resuscitation Registry style. A statement for health professionals from a Task Force of the AmericanTemplates for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Statement for Healthcare Heart Association, the European Resuscitation Council, the Heart and StrokeProfessionals From a Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Foundation of Canada, and the Australian Resuscitation Council. Circulation.Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular 84:960-975.Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation. Resuscitation. 96:328-340.'