22 Figure 11 is a bivariate analysis of survival rate by EMS response time (measured from call receipt at dispatch center to arrival of the ambulance at the scene) for all OHCA patients as well as three subsets: bystander witnessed, bystander witnessed VF/VT (Utstein), and unwitnessed. Patients with a witnessed VF/VT arrest experienced a significant decrease in survival with increasing EMS response time. In contrast, response time had little effect on survival among unwitnessed arrests. Figure 11. Survival rate by EMS response time and arrest witness status. Figure 12 illustrates the interdependence between the links in the chain of survival, by highlighting how rapid 911 response and bystander CPR (bCPR) work in tandem to improve patient survival. Bystander CPR helps provide critical and timely intervention while 911 vehicles are in transit to the scene. By comparing the same patient subgroups in Figure 11 and Figure 12, one can see how survival is elevated when bystander CPR is performed. Figure 12. Survival rate by EMS response time and arrest witness status, among patients who received bystander CPR.